Drought problem of Turkey (especially İstanbul)
Excluding the last precipitations by rain and snow, the climate was reported to be quite dry for Turkey in this winter. A related news regarding dwindling drinking water supply stated the difficult situation faced by İstanbul. Granted, changes in the water supply might not be a 100 % direct result of changing climate. Nevertheless, it has its own impact, so I decided to take a look on what is happening in Turkey in terms of drought with available data.
Fortunate of me, there is the following website of NCAR which explains different indices used to monitor and understand drought instances. Very briefly, Standard Precipitation Index is a statistical method which takes precipitation time-series data and gives SPI values with 1,3,6,12,24, and 48 months period. For instance, 12 months mean considering a month's precipitation and preceeding 11 months precipitation at the same time to generate a SPI value. Obvious shortcoming of this index is the lack of consideration of increasing temperatures. Still, it is quite effective and operational. Turkey's State Meteorological Service published SPI values for many sub-provinces and overall Turkey from 1980 to 2020 in the following website using ground observation data of precipitation: